[[prefix-query]] === prefix Query

To find all postcodes beginning with W1, we could use a ((("prefix query")))((("postcodes (UK), partial matching with", "prefix query")))simple prefix query:


GET /my_index/address/_search { "query": { "prefix": { "postcode": "W1" } }


// SENSE: 130_Partial_Matching/10_Prefix_query.json

The prefix query is a low-level query that works at the term level. It doesn't analyze the query string before searching. It assumes that you have passed it the exact prefix that you want to find.


By default, the prefix query does no relevance scoring. It just finds matching documents and gives them all a score of 1. Really, it behaves more like a filter than a query. The only practical difference between the prefix query and the prefix filter is that the filter can be cached.


Previously, we said that `you can find only terms that exist in the inverted index,'' but we haven't done anything special to index these postcodes; each postcode is simply indexed as the exact value specified in each document. So how does theprefix` query work?

[role="pagebreak-after"] Remember that the inverted index consists((("inverted index", "for postcodes"))) of a sorted list of unique terms (in this case, postcodes). For each term, it lists the IDs of the documents containing that term in the postings list. The inverted index for our example documents looks something like this:

Term:          Doc IDs:
"SW5 0BE"    |  5
"W1F 7HW"    |  3
"W1V 3DG"    |  1
"W2F 8HW"    |  2
"WC1N 1LZ"   |  4

To support prefix matching on the fly, the query does the following:

  1. Skips through the terms list to find the first term beginning with W1.
  2. Collects the associated document IDs.
  3. Moves to the next term.
  4. If that term also begins with W1, the query repeats from step 2; otherwise, we're finished.

While this works fine for our small example, imagine that our inverted index contains a million postcodes beginning with W1. The prefix query would need to visit all one million terms in order to calculate the result!

And the shorter the prefix, the more terms need to be visited. If we were to look for the prefix W instead of W1, perhaps we would match 10 million terms instead of just one million.

CAUTION: The prefix query or filter are useful for ad hoc prefix matching, but should be used with care. ((("prefix query", "caution with"))) They can be used freely on fields with a small number of terms, but they scale poorly and can put your cluster under a lot of strain. Try to limit their impact on your cluster by using a long prefix; this reduces the number of terms that need to be visited.

Later in this chapter, we present an alternative index-time solution that makes prefix matching much more efficient. But first, we'll take a look at two related queries: the wildcard and regexp queries.